Romano-catolicii din Moldova (Romania) - Roman Catholics from Moldavia - Romania - people so called csangos - românii denumiți ceangăi, Tchangos
Dumitru Mărtinaş was born on May 11, 1897, in Butea, the commune of Miclăuşeni, Neamţ county (currently the locality belongs to Iaşi county), from peasant parents with ancestors of all Roman Catholics (so-called csango). As a child, he expressed a strong desire for knowledge, was a compelling student and succeeded in attending high school. He graduated from the University of Iasi's philology faculty in 1922, studying Romanian language and literature, Latin language and philosophy. He was enlisted and fought on the front in World War I. After finishing his university studies he worked in education from October 12, 1921 at the German High School and the Normal School in Cernăuţi, at the German High School in Trontino, the White Fortress county, at the Middle School no. 2 from Arad, at the "Prince Nicolae" lyceum in Sighişoara, and from September 1, 1925 at the "Alexandru Papiu Ilarian" lyceum in Targu-Mureş where he worked for three periods: 1925-1940; 1945-1948 and 1955-1958, and as director between 1934-1936. He retired in 1962 and settled in Buzau where he died on February 3, 1979. His scientific work includes several pedagogical essays and the book "The Origin of the csangos from Moldavia" in which he worked for a lifetime. He has written numerous studies and articles he has spoken with soul when the plate dedicated to the remembrance of Mihai Eminescu's memorial, "At the white horse" in Târgu-Mureş, str. Călăraşilor (June 16, 1946) and since he was part of the Initiative Committee for the lifting at the monument of Papiu (1927), Dumitru Mărtinaş was also the one who spoke during the festivities of relocation of the bust in front of the school (December 22, 1957). In order to write his main work, in almost 50 years, he carried out on-site research and analysis in over 70 villages with Roman Catholic inhabitants (csangos), from Moldavia. “The professional needs - wrote Dumitru Mărtinaş - took me through Bucovina, Basarabia, through Transylvania, to Arad, Sighisoara, Târgu-Mureş. The pretentiousness of the Romanian peasants resembles those of Butea. In the autumn, children from Danes or Voiniceni, Raciu and from other villages came to school crammed in a haystack on the straw mat, scared, puzzled, overwhelmed by their parents, peasants pressed by all the humiliations and necessities of their bitter thoughts. to prepare children for a safer path, a more human life. I confess that all these children inspired a deep sympathy for me because they reminded me of the child who once, in 1907, crouched in a haystack with my father, entered Iasi on the street Păcurari, scared of the city and the tram. That's why I loved these boys, protected them, encouraged them and helped them with powers throughout my career. Established in Târgu-Mureş, as a teacher at the "Alexandru Papiu Ilarian" lyceum, I taught the Romanian language and literature and at the Hungarian Roman Catholic High School. The Hungarian director and colleagues, knowing that I was a csango, welcomed me, but could not hide their disappointment: I csango - and Hungarian in their opinion - I did not know any Hungarian language. I met Szekler students, their parents, peasants whom I researched very carefully. Well- to-do and wealthy, proud people: they did not resemble our Moldavian peasant farmers, neither in word, nor in port, nor in customs. Other people's other lifestyle. In contrast, at "Papiu Ilarian" among the children of Wallachians and especially with their parents, honest and modest peasants, I have always felt among my own and I must confess that for 37 years, the parents and children of the villages Transylvanians have given me in every circumstance a warm and clean love that even today moves me to tears. It was the most precious reward of my teacher's efforts''.
The book of Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş entitled: "The origin of the csangos from Moldavia" was printed by the insistence and care of the well-known people of culture Ion Coja and V.M. Ungureanu. After reading the manuscript, Professor Ion Coja perfectly describes the moral and intellectual profile of the author: “an honest and erudite man, a man of professional conduct without reproach, a straight man, with a perfect moral sense. Few scientific works allow the reader to make a portrait of the author. This work of Mărtinaş rising against some unanimously accepted theses, rising with bitterness and obedience to what one sees as his own, by methodically dismantling - sine ira et studio - the monument of non-truth, often framed out of bad faith more than ignorance ... this work draws me closer to the man who wrote it as a dedication, although the secret was another despite a truth that for the author is in the light of the day easy to know who would have been tired before whatever to ask the csangos themselves. The author, himself csango .... writes to defend a right that is above any political interests: the moral right to know and assume their own identity. It does not keep Dumitru Mărtinaş to please anybody by asserting his Romanian origin, but only by pleasing his conscience, engaged in a feverish search for the truth and eventually assuming a Romanian ethnic identity only to the extent that he considers it with the truth, because the truth was the interest in which Dumitru Mărtinaş felt animated in his research. Thus, Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş proves to have been a worthy continuator of the thought of Alexandru Papiu Ilarian, who in his work, "The History of the Romanians from the Upper Dacia" '' (vol. II, Vienna, 1852) he wrote: "Truth being my supreme law and lucidity in all, I wrote it and told my friend and foe in a form without bias." . Origin and meaning of csango name: In Romanian, the word ceangău (csango - in English) has no meaning. This is proof that this word does not come from the Romanian language. In Hungarian literature, the word csango was first used in the "Notitia de rebus hungarorum qui in Moldova et ultra degant" written by Petru Zöld, in 1780, where the term appears in the form csángó-magyar. The genesis and meaning of the word csango: a) csángani = to be mongrel (in biological sense) b) csángó-beszéd = mongrel speech (in the linguistic sense) c) csángó-magyar = mongrel Hungarian (the one who speaks a mixed language)

"A life dedicated to an opera. In memoriam professoris Dumitru Mărtinaş"

The present volume, which I titled "A life dedicated to an opera. In memoriam professoris Dumitru Mărtinaş", gathers in its pages a series of materials (unpublished and edited) dedicated throughout the time of professor Dumitru Mărtinaş. Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş is the author of the book "The Origin of the csangos from Moldavia", a posthumously published work that brought into the scientific environment a special approach regarding the Romanian origin of the Roman Catholic population in Moldova. Born on May 11, 1897, in the village of Butea (the former Miclăuşeni commune, the current Butea commune) in Iasi County, in a family of Catholic peasants, the child Dumitru Mărtinaş showed an obvious desire to learn, being a compulsory student. Secondary studies will follow at the "Saint Joseph" Roman Catholic Catholic Seminary in Iasi (graduating in 1916), and the university ones at the "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi University (with a bachelor's degree in the year 1922). The present volume, "A life dedicated to an opera. In memoriam professoris Dumitru Mărtinaş", is structured on a number of 8 chapters: I. Articles and studies on the life and activity of professor Dumitru Mărtinaş; II. Excerpts from the volume of professor Dumitru Mărtinaş, "The origin of the csangos people from Moldavia"; III. Anniversary medal "Prof. Dumitru Mărtinaş"; IV. Chronicle of the activity of the Roman-Catholic Association of Moldova "Dumitru Mărtinaş"; V. Documents; VI. Notes; Bibliography; VIII. Photos. In the first chapter we included a number of 16 texts, unpublished or edited over time, signed by personalities, church and lay people, who appreciated how the work of Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş is appropriate: PS Petru Gherghel, In Search of Truth; Gheorghe Bejan, Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş; Alexandru Ciubîcă, Activity of Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş at "Alexandru Papiu Ilarian" College in Târgu Mureş; Anton Coşa, A Forgotten Manuscript by Dumitru Mărtinaş; Ioan Dănilă, Dumitru Mărtinaş and the systematic language argumentation; Cristinel Farcaş, In memoriam prof. Dumitru Mărtinaş; Dorinel Ichim, Memories about a man; Ioan Lăcătuşu, Dumitru Mărtinaş and the problem of relations between Roman Catholics from Moldova and Romanians from southeastern Transylvania; Ştefan Lupu, 110 years since the birth of Dumitru Mărtinaş; Dorin Suciu, Dumitru Mărtinaş: Exegi Monumentum; Dorin Borda, Dumitru Mărtinaş - medallion; Constantin Beloiu, Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş and the problem of the ethno-historical origin of the csangos from Moldova; Costin Merişca, Thoughts on the Edge of Dumitru Mărtinaş's book; Alexandru Popşor, Contributions to the biography of some unforgettable teachers: Dumitru Mărtinaş; J. Spielmann, An educator - Dumitru Mărtinaş; Anton Coşa, And they met Dumitru Mărtinaş. In the second chapter I inserted a number of 7 texts, extracted from the book of Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş, The origin of the csangos from Moldavia: Dumitru Mărtinaş, The author's word on the volume "The origin of the csangos from Moldavia"; Vladimir Petercă, Foreword to the volume "The origin of the csangos from Moldavia"; Anton Despinescu, Preface to the volume "The origin of the csangos from Moldavia"; Ion Dumitriu-Snagov, Introductory word on the volume "The origin of the csangos from Moldavia"; Dumitru Mărtinaş, Author's conclusions on the volume "The origin of the csangos people from Moldavia"; Ion Coja, Postscript on the volume "The origin of the csangos from Moldavia"; Dumitru Mărtinaş, Some autobiographical notes of the author of the volume "The origin of the csangos from Moldavia. In chapter III we present the anniversary medal "Prof. Dumitru Mărtinaş", issued by the Association of Roman Catholics of Moldova "Dumitru Mărtinaş", the National Bacau Archives and the Association of Archivists of Romania - Bacău Branch, in 2007, on the occasion of the 110th anniversary years since the birth of Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş. In chapter IV we wrote a Chronicle of the activity of the Association of Roman Catholics of Moldavia "Dumitru Mărtinaş" during the 15 years of existence (2001-2016). Without having the claim of an exhaustive review, we organized the presentation on three main segments: A. Scientific and cultural events, book launches, interviews, projects carried out under the aegis or collaboration of the Association of Roman Catholics of Moldova "Dumitru Mărtinaş"; B. Participations in congresses, conferences, scientific sessions, symposiums, round tables, colloquiums, meetings, debates, where topics related to the Catholics from Moldova were presented; C. Publications that appeared under the aegis or with the support of the Association of Roman Catholics of Moldova "Dumitru Mărtinaş". Chapter V contains a series of Documents which, with a few exceptions, are unique. The documents come from the Archive of the "Alexandru Papiu Ilarian" National College in Târgu Mureş and from the funds of the Mureş National Archives. They refer to the didactic activity of Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş. In this volume, A life dedicated to a work. In memoriam professoris Dumitru Mărtinaş, our action on published texts was minimal. I did not intervene in any way in the footnotes (where they exist) of these texts. In some cases I have made some clarifications in Chapter VI, of the Notes (where I made the necessary references and regarding the texts already published). We did not annotate the edited texts, so as to bring them up to date ("up to date"), considering, like other researchers, that any such action "would have been a kind of falsification of the initial data of the exposed research" previously. In a separate chapter (VII), from the Bibliography, we inserted a good part of the rich Romanian scientific output (volumes, articles and studies, periodicals) regarding the history of the Catholics in Moldova, from the years after the book of Dumitru Martărinaş , to this day. In the pages of the final chapter (VIII), we have chosen to reproduce a series of Photos regarding Professor Dumitru Mărtinaş. The images are from the Archive of the Association of Roman Catholics of Moldova "Dumitru Mărtinaş", except the photograph no. 9 - The teaching staff of the "Al. Papiu Ilarian" High School in Târgu Mureş (sent by the professor Alexandru Ciubîcă) and of the photographs no. 10 and no. 11 - Graduation picture - 1928 - "Al. Papiu Ilarian" High School (sent by journalist Dorin Suciu from Târgu Mureş). The book "A life dedicated to an opera. In memoriam professoris Dumitru Mărtinaş" appears under the aegis of the Association of Roman Catholics of Moldova "Dumitru Mărtinaş" Bacău and of the Department of Historical Research of the Roman-Catholic Bishopric of Iasi. Prof. dr. Anton Coşa




The Scientific and Encyclopedic Publishing House Bucharest - 1985

Summary and excerpts from the book

The history of csangos research is long, full of mishaps and very often vain searches. Their problem has constantly caught the attention of the teachers because of Hungarian language that is spoken through several villages in Moldavia. The enigmatic csangos from Moldavia did not come bypassed from a lesser-known epoch of our history, which could not be liked by former researchers. Canceling their past being powerless, it has long been attempted to adjust it. In this long and laborious research work, an element of great scientific significance was forgotten: their Romanian language . It was believed that by silencing the original language of a population and substituting it with a foreign language, which did not fit and could never properly understand, its historical past could be buried in oblivion and absorption within the Hungarian population. Numerous scientific observers (historians, geographers) or simple travelers have reported with astonishment that the csangos, usually considered to be Hungarians of origin, have a characteristic Romanian physiognomy and tenaciously preserve the Transylvanian Romanian language, the Romanian customs, the traditions of the old Romanian port. Scientists and political leaders about Roman Catholics (csangos) from Moldavia. Hungarian historians and linguists have spread a series of assumptions and legends about the origin of the csangos, trying to argue that csangos were of Cuman, Cabar, Pechenegian or Hunic origin based on the confessional argument and ignoring ethnographic arguments, without observing customs, the popular port and the traditions of the csangos. The hypothesis of the Romanian origin of the csangos was omitted. Even some Romanian historians have claimed that the csangos would have a different origin than the Romanian ones, based on the confessional criterion (their belonging to the Roman Catholic church) and the linguistic one (the csangos bilingualism). There were also historians or politicians who recognized the Romanian origin of Moldavian Roman Catholics and demanded that the same rights be granted to Moldavian Catholics, as did the majority of the population. Dimitrie Cantemir noted about the Catholics of his time, that they declare themselves Catholics by race and religion. In the Ad-hoc Divan (parliament) of Moldova (1857), Mihail Kogălniceanu defended the rights of Moldovan Roman Catholics, rejecting a statute that would have left Moldavian Catholics without rights. Costache Negri defended the rights of Moldavian Catholics, asserting that they "... with us, for centuries, in all our days of pain and bitterness, have at the same time pulled and endured all the sufferings that the Lord God has shown us to bear, to bring us to wisdom and justice today nine of us... ” . The linguist Sever Pop (1901-1961), author of the Romanian Linguistic Atlas, wrote “The female costume, from the region, has nothing Hungarian; on the contrary, it offers all the characteristics of the costumes in the mountain region of Moldavia ” . In 1887, Ballagi Aladár, the president of the Hungarian Geographical Society visited the village of Cleja from Bacău county, an occasion he could not hide his surprise by saying about the inhabitants of the village that “… they seem to be Wallachians. Not only the port but also their physiognomy carry the Wallachian imprint… ” . In 1787, Count d 'Hauterive, secretary of the ruler Alexandru Mavrocordat, mentioned in a memoir that the Moldavian csangos are passionate dancers and skilled performers of Romanian dances. Speaking about Roman Catholics in Moldavia, the historian Nicolae Iorga expressed admiringly his surprise at the Romanian dress of the csangos described by him "... with beautiful ports ..." , whose women wrap their heads "... in large white brogues, in all such first their size and by the way they are trapped, with those of the girls and the wives of the mountain of Fagaras ... " , the great historian concluding that the csangos " ... are not as far from strangers as one might suspect ... " . Catholic missionaries about the csangos from Moldavia As early as 1234, in a papal letter it is mentioned that in the territory of the bishopric of Milcov, the Catholics mingle with the Wallachians, pass to their faith, becoming a people with them . Archbishop Marco Bandini also made the same statement regarding the transition of Catholics to the Orthodox religion in his report to Bacău, on March 2, 1648, documenting the findings made during the visit made by the high prelate in the Catholic localities of Moldova. In 1763, the bishop of Bacău, Stanislau Jezierski noted that "... in all Moldova the number of Catholics only increases through the Catholics who come from Transylvania ..." and because these "Transylvanian Catholics belong to Hungarian zone ... Moldavians do not call them Catholics but Hungarians ... " . Also in 1763, Iosif Cambioli, the Prefect of the Franciscan Mission of Moldova, noted “... for seven years now, the number of our Catholics has increased and increased every day, not because non-Catholics would visit us, but because in Hungary and especially In Transylvania it has been hungry and now, since the peace between the Austrians and the Prussians came to an end, they have seized soldiers and that is why in this province they have come and come to whole families and a large number of youth from 14 years up, because from that age he enlisted in the army ... ” . From the reports of the Catholic missionaries, it turns out that besides the heavy economic burdens (huge taxes and burdens paid by the Transylvanian Romanians), which caused the Romanian peasants to take refuge in Moldavia, was the forced military service, introduced by the Austrian authorities that aimed at annexing Transylvania and Bucovina, aimed at increasing the number of troops. In order to extend their influence on the Moldavian Roman Catholics, the Hungarian missionaries tried to influence the decisions taken at the Vatican, the letter addressed to Pope Pius VI - by the Bishop of Alba Iulia Ignațiu Batthyani, who expressed his sorrow in this regard for the fate of the Catholic believers in the Moldavian area, stating that they only understand the Hungarian language, that the Italian missionaries do not preach, confess and do not catechize in the language of the people, Bishop Ignațiu Batthyani requesting the withdrawal of the Italian missionaries and their replacement with the Hungarian missionary. Knowing the realities of Moldavia, on January 7, 1788, Pope Pius VI replied to the bishop Ignațiu Batthyani, telling him that it is not necessary to grieve because Italian missionaries use Romanian language in pastoral care, which is the native language of the vast majority of the population Catholics from Moldavia and for the Hungarian-speaking believers, the cardinal from Esztergom was authorized to send to Moldavia two Hungarian-speaking missionaries. During the period of the bishop Ioan-Filip Paroni (1818-1825), the missionary staff from Moldova could no longer be assured, which is why the support of the conventual Franciscan province from Transylvania was requested and the pastorate was done for about 40 years, by the Hungarian priests. During this pastorate period, the gospel was read in Hungarian, as was the sermon, church songs and litanies were sung in Hungarian, the names of the parishioners were Hungarian and in some cases the names of the localities were Hungarian. All these actions meant to introduce the Hungarian language in the Catholic communities of Moldova, generated a conflict between parishioners and priests, the first complaining to the apostolic vicar of Moldavia that they do not understand anything about the religious services and the Hungarian missionaries complained that the Hungarian language was extinguished. The conflict was extinguished when the Hungarian missionaries were withdrawn from Moldavia. Roman Catholics in Moldova about themselves The csangos did not know the Hungarians, lived according to their Romanian coordinates and spoke a Romanian Transylvanian language, an expression of their Romanian origin. They always declared themselves Romanians. In the book Descriptio Moldaviae (Description of Moldavia), Dimitrie Cantemir - mentioning the existence of Catholics in this territory - notes that they avoided saying that they were Hungarians and that they were called Catholics. The geographer Victor Tufescu (the founder of modern geography in Romania) noted that "... almost everywhere, in the csangos villages no Hungarian word is heard and the so-called csangos from there are considered insulted if they are called Hungarians and not Romanians ..." . The Hungarian writer Ignácz Rózsa (1909-1979) who traveled through Moldova notes the total absence of the Hungarian consciousness and the vigorous re-escalation of the Romanian patriotism to the inhabitants of Luizi Călugăra, Bacău county. The struggle of Moldovan Catholics for asserting their Romanian identity and for their rights, can best be expressed by the words of a Catholic inhabitant from the village of Săbăoani, elected deputy in the Roman county, who was greeted by the sherif with the message that he does not recognize him as a deputy because he is a Catholic. That Catholic resident of Săbăoani replied: “How come, when all the villages have chosen me to defend their rights in the great Assembly, I am a Catholic and cannot be a deputy? But when you put us to the work, when we take our taxes, when we give the youngs to the armies, when we working for you, then we are not Catholics, but look at ourselves as Orthodox? If it is, that we cannot be deputies because we are papists, then give us peace to be papists and to the taxes and the work and to all the tasks ... ” . The author's final conclusions 1. The csangos were not linguistically assimilated to Moldova, they did not learn Romanian here, because in 1766 they were bilingual and spoke Romanian in their old language brought from Transylvania. 2. They do not speak today in Moldavian dialect but in their specific Transylvanian, sigmatizing and africanizing dialect. 3. Both africanization and sigmatism are popular phonetic phenomena of Transylvania. 4. The csangos language, as well as the historical data, confirms once again the thesis that they are Transylvanian Romanians, some partially Magyarized, established in Moldavia in the 18th century. Buzau, February 6, 1963 Dumitru Mărtinaș
The teacher  -  Dumitru  Mărtinaș The teacher Dumitru Mărtinaș (fourth from the left in the top row), and the group of teachers from the Alexandru Papiu Ilarian lyceum
1897 - 1979
"Dumitru Mărtinaş" Roman-Catholic Association representing Roman-Catholics from Moldavia - Romania (people so called "csangos", French - tchangos, Hungarian - csangok, German - tschangos)