Romano-catolicii din Moldova (Romania) - Roman Catholics from Moldavia - Romania - people so called csangos - românii denumiți ceangăi, Tchangos
Attempts to introduce education in Hungarian language in schools from localities with Roman-Catholic population. The end of World War II and the significant political changes in Eastern and Central Europe did not bypass Romania either. Thus, after August 23, 1944, the Romanian political scene began to be seized by the Romanian Communist Party, the new political force logistically supported by the USSR. The destruction of the old democratic political regime, an action in keeping with the King's abdication, opened in Romania a new page of history, which marked, in the most negative sense, the evolution of the Romanian society. The beginning of the process of building up the socialist society, on the ruins of the old inter-war democracy, was not only aimed at achieving some transformations in the economic system but, on the contrary, a washing of the Romanians' conscience, which was to lead, in the end, to the emergence of the new man. The imposition of the single party, in February 1948, together with the establishment of the Romanian Labor Party, was the spring that triggered what was called the new national policy, focused on the idea that the respective socialist society is made up only of working people. As a result, in order to achieve a better control of the Romanian society, the leading circles of the time, under direct oblivion of the one who was called Stalin's father, have switched to a new policy of exacerbating the nationalism of the nationalities in Romania. Consequently, in order to reflect the "profound democratism of our socialist organization", within this broader current, a special place was reserved for education in the mother tongue. Another step taken in the same direction was the establishment of the central and county councils of the German, Hungarian and other nationalities. However, in the unfolding of the Cultural Revolution, the role of primadon returned to education. As a result, on August 3, 1948, the new law for the so-called education reform was adopted, which subsequently underwent several changes, in 1968 and 1978. According to the 1948 version, a priority of the Ministry of Public Education has become the organization of education in the languages ​​of minorities. Thus, starting with 1949, the respective forum started to develop school curricula for teaching Ukrainian, Serbian, Russian, Tatar, Slovak, Greek, Bulgarian, Armenian, Yiddish, Croatian, Turkish, Czech, Polish, German and Hungarian. If, for the most part, the organization of education in the respective languages ​​corresponded to concrete ethnic realities, satisfying their needs, there were some excesses, which were no longer justified, considering the realities existing on the ground. To be more explicit, it is about organizing education in the Hungarian language of instruction in Moldova. If, in Transylvania, he was responding to unspeakable ethnic realities, on the other hand, his imposition, as we will see, forced in the Catholic communities of the former Bacău Region represented only a political gesture that was intended to undermine those communities. In essence, this measure is less explainable since, with the beginning of the organization of Hungarian language education in the Bacau Region, in the 1948/1949 school year, a census was conducted in the targeted rural area, where the Catholic population declared itself "origin" Romanian nationality and citizenship. Moreover, in the Luizi Călugăra commune the beginning of the new form of education in the Hungarian language was a disaster, because, in the period preceding the opening of the 1948/1949 school year, over 100 inhabitants of the respective municipality refused to enroll the children in the language school. Hungarian teaching, requesting school authorities in Romanian. But, knowing the attitude of the Communist Party towards the individual human rights, the authorities of the respective time, ignoring the signals coming from the territory and the people's options, decided to continue the process of organizing the education in Hungarian language in Moldavia. Thus, with a view to meeting the proposed objectives, the authorities decided to take a sharper stance, starting at the first stage to compel the school principals to "increasingly teach in Hungarian." A first reaction to the policy carried out by the School Inspectorate was the splitting of the respective communities, in fact the enmity of the children among them, "what sometimes they fall asleep" due to the form of education they were following, as was the case in Faraoani commune. Unfortunately, the communist authorities did not understand these disorders, which began to manifest themselves in the communities of the Moldavian Catholics, except that the respective "attitudes produce serious difficulties in solving the national problem". The wish of the forum in question was "to deal with the parents the national problem" and not to abandon the project, which generated the state of abnormality in the Catholic rite communities. Consequently, knowingly ignoring the signals coming from the territory, which indicated that the initiative to set up schools with Hungarian language was inappropriate, the authorities put into practice a vast program of development of the respective educational institutions. Thus, the number of schools in Hungarian language in the territory of the former Bacău Region has increased rapidly, reaching 1951, out of 623 elementary school units, 27 being Hungarian language teaching, and four of the 161 schools aged 7 to be find out in the same situation. As a result, such schools worked, at that time, in the following localities: Luizii Călugăra - 7 years mixed elementary school, Chetriş - 4 years mixed elementary school, Gioseni - 4 years mixed elementary school, Cleja - 4-year elementary mixed school, Şomuşca - Cleja - 4-year-old mixed elementary school, Fundu Răcăciuni - 11-year-old elementary school for boys, Liliecii de Jos - 4-year mixed elementary school, Galbeni - Nicolae Bălcescu - 4 years mixed elementary school, Vladnic - Parincea - 4 years mixed elementary school, Buchila - Valea Seacă - 4 years mixed elementary school, Lărguţa - Valea Seacă - elementary school mixed 4 years, Valea Seacă - 4 years mixed elementary school, Corbu - Neamţ county - 4 years mixed elementary school, Hagata - Tulgheş Neamţ County - 4 years mixed elementary school, Putna - Tulgheş county - 4 years elementary school, Recea - Tulgheş county - 4 years mixed elementary school, Sîngeroasa - Tulgheş county - 4 years mixed elementary school, Cantru - Tulgheş County - 7 years mixed elementary school. In total, the respective educational units had in their statistics, in 1951, 1018 students, of which only 875 students attended the courses. Analyzing the statistics made in 1951 by the Education Section of the People's Advice of the Bacău Region, we are revealed the whole dimension of the effort made since 1949 and until then for the development of education in Hungarian language. Thus, most schools had their own newly built premises, were well equipped with school supplies, benches, chairs, chairs, boards, etc., and some of them had their own boarding school. All this in a difficult economic time for the country and when the rest of education does not enjoy, by far, comparable conditions, because the ideological value of Hungarian language education in the Catholic communities of Moldavia was too high for the political authorities. This latter aspect is also noticeable in the large number of scholarship holders in the Hungarian schools in the Bacău Region, as compared to the number of scholarship holders in the Romanian schools, as the material stimulus was, among other things, one of the methods used to attract children to the Hungarian schools, known the fact that the Catholic families were numerous, thus facing much greater material difficulties. Apart from the schools included in the first statistic of 1951, mentioned above, in a second statistic of the same year, Hungarian schools were also presented in the following localities: Lespezi, com.Gârleni, 4-year elementary school; Bolovăniş, Ghimeş - Făget comm., 4-year elementary school; Faget, Ghimeş - Faget, 4-year elementary school; Tarhaus, com Ghimeş - Făget elementary school for 4 years; Buha, Ghimeş - Făget comm., 4-year elementary school; Ghimeş - Gare, commune Ghimeş - Făget, elementary school for 7 years; Pustiana, 4-year elementary school; Sârbi, Tescani comm., 4-year elementary school. Analyzing the data provided by the documents consulted in the archives, we readily observed that the period from 1950 to 1953 represented the height of the development of education in Hungarian language, because then the greatest pressures in this direction were coordinated by the Ministry of Public Education, through its department. of education for minorities, and of the educational section of the Bacau Region. These efforts have been successful in the sense that the number of schools in Hungarian language has been growing by the end of the 1950s. Thus, in the address of March 31, 1953 of the Education Section of the Popular Council of the Bacau Region to the Ministry of Public Education, new achievements were reported: 30 elementary 4-year schools, 11 Romanian 4-year schools with Hungarian sections, a 7-year school years and an average. In addition to the previous year, in addition 9 Hungarian sections were set up in Romanian schools, a 7-year school and a mixed-education pedagogical school in Bacău. On this occasion, the number of children enrolled in these schools increased, in 1953 there were 2229 children in grades I-IV, out of which I was in the first quarter - 2071, the second quarter - 2129 and the third quarter - 2193. The non-schooling of the difference until the amount reviewed was due to the fact that the teachers did not fulfill their schooling plan, such as in Somuşca. A few years later, with the census of the children who were going to be educated in the Bacau Region (on 28.01.1958), a decrease in the number of pupils who were going to learn Hungarian was observed. Out of a total of 302,088 children born between 1944 and 1954 and registered on January 26, 1958, 300,652 children were rounded up to schools with the Romanian language and only 1436 were enrolled for school in Hungarian. Most of them, respectively 1409, were domiciled in the rural area, and the rest, 27 in number, in the urban area. Basically, the beginning of the '50s marked the height of the expansion of education in the Hungarian language in the Bacau region, a reality that determined the leaders of the Education Council of the People's Council to find that it knew in 1952/1953 a marked increase over the previous years and was unfolding " in the spirit of solving the national problem ”. Also in this report are specified the ways used to ensure the proliferation of education in Hungarian in the villages of Moldavian Catholics. The first of these, from a certain acceptable point of view, was the establishment of schools, with new premises and facilities, which only carried out their program in Hungarian. Unfortunately, this was not overused, but because of the desire of the local political authorities eager to report to the superior resonant successes of their work, serious abuses were put into practice, never encountered in other situations. When we refer to these, we consider the abolition of schools with teaching in Romanian language from the Catholic villages of the Bacău Region and their transformation into schools with the language of Hungarian teaching. Thus, through a simple trait of the counties, disregarding the realities on the ground, the children who had hitherto learned in school in the Romanian language were passed, in the night, into the educational program with teaching in Hungarian. Only committing this administrative abuse allowed the artificial development of schools with teaching in the Hungarian language, creating the impression of a mass phenomenon inscribed in a normality conceived by the leaders of the socialist education. The direct consequence of these measures was the transformation of a large number of schools with the Romanian teaching language into schools with the Hungarian teaching language. According to the report of the Education Section of the People's Advice of the Bacau Region, addressed to 04.03.1953 to the Ministry of Public Education, the following Romanian school units were cosmetized becoming, overnight, Hungarian: the 4-year elementary school from Tg. Trotuş, the 4-year elementary school in Oneşti, the 4- year elementary school in Tuta, the elementary schools in Satu Nou, Nicoreşti, Vladnic, Buchila, Lărguţa, Somuşca, all from the former Raion Bacau, the 4-year elementary school in Lespezi, from the former Buhuşi, the elementary schools from Pustiana and Sârbi, from the former Raion Moineşti. Basically, following the anachronistic measures taken, a number of 1311 students, divided into classes as follows: cl. I - 298, cl. II - 300, cl. III - 266, cl. IV - 283, cl. V - 97, cl. VI - 32 and cl. VII - 29, who were of Romanian nationality and were teaching until then in schools with the Romanian language of instruction, became, due to the will of some civil servants, of Csango - Hungarian nationality and pupils of the Hungarian language school. This measure affected not only the children, but also their parents and a number of 57 teachers, who had served the respective schools with teaching in Romanian. The cynicism of the party activists, who rotated the activity of the Education Section near the People's Council of the Bacau Region, did not stop here alone. But, in the same report, prepared on March 4, they considered that "there are still some villages in which schools in Romanian had to be abolished", although besides them there were also teaching units in Hungarian, because, starting with the 1953 school year. / 1954, "to transform all classes, progressively, into classes with Hungarian language". In this regard, the following schools were targeted: 7-year-old school from Pârgăreşti, Neamt County, Bahna, Oituz, Galbeni, Nicolae Bălcescu, Valea Seacă, Valea Mare, Faraoani, Buda-Cleja, Fundu Răcăciuni, Gioseni, Osebiţi elementary schools , Luizii Călugăra. That measure would affect another 646 primary school. The forced conversion of pupils from schools with the language of Romanian, to those who were teaching in Hungarian, fully explains that, just a few years after the launch of this initiative, the number of pupils attending the school in Hungarian has reached thus exceeding the figure 1500. Thus, in a new report of the Education Section, addressed to the Ministry of Public Education, in the same year 1953, the Baccalaureate authorities requested that the same destination be assigned to the Romanian schools in the following villages: Stuf, Găidar, Ciocani, Valea Rea , Biserica and Frumoasa. Moreover, by far exceeding the tasks they had been entrusted with, the same officials asked the ministry to introduce the Hungarian language in schools in the neighboring regions of Bacau, "where there are not too many concerns in this area." In this respect, the following localities were targeted: Bălăusesti, Bărtăreşti, Gherăieşti, Săbăoani, Traian - from Iasi County; Poscuţeni and Găiceana communes - from Bârlad region. What strikes the text of this report, mentioned above, is the writing in a Hungarian form of the names of the respective communes from the former regions of Iasi and Bârlad. The signatories of this document, the head of the education department C. Vlad and the inspector for minorities Kardos I., go beyond any limit of normality when they request, in addition, "the completion of the year-end examination at the Hungarian language in the Romanian language schools", where was taught as an object of study, probably considering that the Hungarian language school and the Hungarian language sections next to the Romanian schools are insufficient for the "world dimension of the Hungarian language" and that everyone should know and use this language. They merely took over and developed the initiative of Kerekeş Irma's predecessor, to whom we owe the initiative of introducing Hungarian into Romanian-language schools, which existed in Catholic villages. The attitude adopted by those who turned the activity of the Education Section of the People's Council of the Bacau Region, shows, in an unequivocal way, the way in which the introduction of this form of education in the Catholic communities of Moldavia was conceived, as well as the purpose pursued. The decision to set up schools with teaching in Hungarian was taken arbitrarily, without the population of these villages having previously submitted applications, requesting Hungarian. In fact, the same population was not even questioned in this regard, to see if she wanted something like that. Simply, the leaders of the socialist Romania ordered the introduction of the respective form of education in an authoritarian way. The measure was intended, in their conception, to contribute to solving the fresh propagandistic invention of PCR - the problem of nationalities. This resulted in the stubbornness with which the Catholics from Moldavia were included in the Hungarian ethnic group. The respective policy had nothing to do with the problem of the co-operative nationalities. In fact, it sought to ensure the strengthening of the control of the communist party over the Romanian society, through this ethnic manipulation, because solving the problem of the nationalities co-operative for the socialist Romania resulted in the massive emigration of the representatives of the different ethnic groups. The Education Section of the Bacău Region also enrolled in the general policy of those times, leading to a strong propaganda of attracting children to Hungarian language schools. Thus, from the visits made to the parents and from the meetings with them, later on, there was also the organization of schooling commissions in addition to the communal popular advice, which, "after they had traveled on the ground and did not reach good results, had called the parents to the Popular Council, carrying out clarification work ”. From this fragment of report it is easy to see the failure of the authorities of the time in their action to persuade people to enroll their children in Hungarian language school . Thus, the only solution of the authorities remained clear, knowing what this type of activity meant in the 1950s, in fact, the parents' constraint. For the 1951/1952 school year, such situations were met in Cleja, Pustiana, Nicolae Bălcescu, Oneşti. At the beginning of the school year, special measures had to be taken to clarify the people, in order to avoid putting into practice their desire to withdraw their children from the Hungarian school, as, in fact, happened in Luizi Călugăra. Significant difficulties were encountered by the authorities when they went on to transform Romanian language schools into Hungarian language schools. First of all, they were faced with the refusal of parents who still wanted their sons and daughters to attend school in Romanian. Thus, in Cleja, where a Hungarian and a Romanian school were established, the population protested against the Hungarian school, and some of them, led by Istok Joseph, did not leave their children at the Hungarian school. The above- mentioned state of mind was not an isolated, local one, but, as shown in a report sent on March 4, 1953 to the Ministry of Public Education, a part of the population was neutral and the majority still demanded school in the Romanian language. The opposition of the people to the attempts of the communist regime to introduce the school into the Hungarian language began to be put by the authorities of the time on account of the "clerical reaction of the bourgeois-landlord's past", which was to "undermine the political value of the school in the mother tongue". In fact, it is known that one of the motives behind the decision to introduce the Hungarian language in the Catholic schools of Moldavia was the undermining of the authority of the Roman- Catholic Church, a prominent opponent of the communist regime . In this measure, in fact, it was tried to produce a rupture between the parishioners and the church, because the latter supported his liturgy in Romanian. Opposition to the initiative to introduce the Hungarian language did the teachers, both Romanian and Hungarian, among them the reports of the time recording the following: Huţu Ioan, Zaharia Ioan, Nemetz Alexandru, Nemetz Elena, Modi Anton, Gheorghie Estera etc. . One form of manifestation of the opposition to the introduction of education in Hungarian was the enrollment of children in schools in other villages. A concurrent example in this regard was that of Farţade Ioan, from Alexandrina village, Cleja commune, who took his child to Sascut school. The lack of popularity of education in Hungarian was not only manifested among parents who had children at school, but also among the people who were to be literate. As it is well known, starting in 1945, a literacy campaign was launched in Romania, which, in the Catholic villages of the Bacau region, wanted to be done in Hungarian. To these tendencies manifested by the local authorities, the persons who were going to benefit from the literacy program opposed their desire to attend school in Romanian and with Romanian teachers. To this fact, the lack of the appropriate teachers must be added, which prevented the "qualitative development of the Hungarian education". Some teachers did not know the Romanian language at all or very little, which is why they could not teach the required Romanian language classes, which made the dissatisfaction of the population grow even more. In these circumstances, the authorities of the time thought that "Hungarian education cannot proceed in an ideal form, creating repercussions on the national problem as well". Thus, after only a few years of experience in this field, the local authorities have come to the conclusion of the impossibility of the success of this form of education. The pessimistic attitude of the local authorities is very well explained, if we take into account the opposition they encountered to the Catholic population. This made it possible for the first state withdrawals to emerge in the full propagandistic period of the expansion of the form of education in the Hungarian language. In this sense, the leaders of Bacău education had to give in to the wishes of the locals. A first case of this nature has been encountered since 1950/1951, in the villages of Buchila and Lărguţa, where the population demanded the re-establishment of schools in the Romanian language. In this case, the authorities initially decided to teach the Romanian language, but subsequently took more drastic measures. Thus, in 1953 it was decided to abolish, in fact the return to the situation before 1948, due to the fact that the number of students decreased dramatically, in the case of the following Hungarian schools: Nicolae Bălcescu, Chietriş, Gioseni, Liliecii de Jos. The new measures taken on that occasion gave the signal of the end of the education in Hungarian on the territory of the former Bacău Region. From that moment the approach of this subject began to be made more nuanced by the Education Section of the region and by the Ministry of Public Education. We cannot conclude the discussion regarding the education in Hungarian without having in mind also a series of issues the collaterals such as the development of the preschool education, the situation of the teachers and so on. Regarding the teachers, two constants defined the ephemeral existence of the Hungarian teaching staff in Moldova, namely: the total origin of the Transylvanian regions and their poor professional training. Thus, most teachers and teachers, who taught in the schools of the former Bacău Region, came from the Hungarian Autonomous Region and from Mures. Their provenance, from foreign areas from those brought by the authorities of the time to serve the interests of the community, raised many problems in relation to their presence in the post. In this direction, a constant was their absence from school and not attending the deadline. The situation has been observable since 1949 and has remained relevant until the dismantling of this artificial form of education imposed on the Catholic communities from the Eastern Carpathians. In addition, the vast majority of teachers moved to the Bacău region did not know or speak Romanian, as is the case of teacher Keresteri Viorica, from Vladnic village, Parincea commune, Bacău county. For this reason, the school syllabus elaborated by the Ministry of Public Education, regarding the development of the courses at the Hungarian school, could not be respected, the Romanian language courses, whose number varied from 3 to 5 hours per week, cannot be kept. Faced with this problem, local authorities were forced to take a number of measures, which should eventually lead to these shortcomings being eliminated. In this respect, the respective measures were adopted, of which the most important were: sending to the specialization of the teachers in the training courses of the ICD, approving the cumulation of hours in the schools with the language of minority teaching, the hiring of teachers at schools other than to those to whom they were holders. All these were adopted by the regional authorities with the approval of the central forums, and also had some positive results, meaning that, towards the end of 1959, the number of teachers who did not know the Romanian language at all reduced to 16. At the pressure of the central authorities, the education department of the Bacau Region showed a great concern for the personal problems of the teachers who were serving the education in Hungarian, in striking contrast to the situation of the other industry colleagues. The interventions of the authorities of the Bacău Region, besides the military authorities in the area of ​​origin of the teachers, are often edifying in this regard, in order to postpone their military service, as "the Hungarian language education in the Bacău Region suffers greatly", facing an acute shortage of "cadres ready to teach Hungarian". But the big problem that Hungarian teachers raised was their poor professional training. Thus, in a statistic made in 1951 by the Education Section of the Bacau region, of the teachers who taught the respective language, none had adequate training, that is to say, graduates of pedagogical schools. Moreover, the same situation is surprised by the most complete report regarding the Hungarian teaching, sent on January 20, 1953, to the Ministry of Public Education by the Baccalaureate authorities. Thus, according to the respective document, in the territory of the Bacău Region, there were 110 teachers in Hungarian language education, of which 56 were qualified, but, of these, only "20-30 do conscious work", and 54 are substitutes. The authors of the statistics in question considered that this situation contributed fully to a weak development of education in Hungarian. The desperation of the authors, who, according to the customs of the time, should have reported success, was so overwhelming that they addressed the Ministry of Public Education with the following question: "what work can be done in such conditions?", Complaining to the respective forum centrally, that the teachers who received the Bacău Region "lead to disaster the course of Hungarian education that has also suffered so far". In order to support schools with Hungarian language, special attention was paid to the organization of kindergartens with the same language. They have been established since 1948, almost one year after the adoption of the new education law. The activity plan of these pre-school education units was focused on talking, games, memorabilia and stories, with the purpose of learning the Hungarian language by the children "considering that the csango population does not possess much vocabulary from the Hungarian language". In practice, the role of the kindergartens was to prepare children able to attend school in Hungarian, since most of the children from the former Bacău region had no knowledge in this field. Thus, through the care of the Inspectorate for Education in the Language of Minorities, in the school year 1951/1952, there were 8 kindergartens with Hungarian teaching language, which had a frequency ranging from 65% to 100%. An important place in the propaganda struggle carried out at that time was occupied by the artistic activities supported by the schools in the Hungarian language. Thus, they were conceived, in a sense, as a source of financial support for Hungarian education. The organization of dances and festivals in rural schools was approved only on condition that the proceeds were paid to the Bacau Pedagogical School - Hungarian Section, newly established. In a second sense, the artistic teams organized near the different schools, through the presented program, had to instill in the consciousness of the Catholic communities the idea of ​​belonging to the Hungarian ethnicity. For this reason, the respective teams were endowed only with Szekler folk costumes. Moreover, on March 3, 1952, the Education Section of the Bacau Region requested the Folklore Institute - Permanent Collection Center in Cluj to send songs "csangos - hungarian", for the preparation of the artistic teams from schools and cultural homes. These songs, inappropriately called Hungarian, were collected by the Cluj Institute from the Hungarian communities in Transylvania. However, the Bacău authorities have sought to introduce them to "our region, where we have a large number of csango - hungarian schools". The relationship with the Folkloric Institute in Cluj was cultivated by those responsible for education in the language of minorities in Bacau, wishing for a closer collaboration, which should have involved and coming to researchers from that institute in the Bacău Region. Finally, the action was successful because, on March 10, 1953, the Institute of Cluj requested the inspector of minorities, Kardos Janos, for permission to conduct field research for Fargo Joszef and Kallos Zoltan. Finally, we want to bring back to the readers' attention some defining elements, which marked the existence of education in Hungarian on the territory of the Bacău region. First of all, we consider that the establishment of this form of education was made after the adoption of the Education Law in 1948 and lasted, in general, until the mid-1960s. The period of almost two decades has been marked by numerous disturbances and searches, which have been manifested in practice through the many establishments and cancellations of schools in the Hungarian language. All this justifies us to consider that the action itself had only an experimental character, as shown by the sources from the documentary funds present in the National Archives - Bacău. The ways and means by which people and communities fulfill their mission are in accordance with the realities of the environment in which they live and according to the legacies they receive. Therefore, their religion, culture, language, habits and evolution over time are the basis of the manifestations of each person and each community. Knowing these elements represents, in fact, not only a condition for being able to grow and contribute to the general good of society, but also a happy means of self- fulfillment and fulfillment of the call entrusted by the Creator. Based on these principles and these considerations we wish to continue the research spirit that Professor Martinaș, to show the courage to tell the internal and external truth, which he knows and lives, to promote understanding, harmony, peace and brotherhood between people, which are the characteristics of a true Christian and this time a Catholic, that is to say universal, without any other or exclusive interests, which would reject others, who have other beliefs and other forms of manifestation. Thus, we wish to go forward, to the past and upheld by the fundamental principles of Christianity, remaining faithful followers of the One who came to convince everyone that they must love, not be harmed on the grounds of language, social conditions or different cultures, but all be one, thus destroying the partition wall and establishing peace with those near and far (cf. Eph. 2,1 22).
E D U C A T I O N in the Roman Catholic communities from Moldavia
"Dumitru Mărtinaş" Roman-Catholic Association representing Roman-Catholics from Moldavia - Romania (people so called "csangos", French - tchangos, Hungarian - csangok, German - tschangos)